The butterfly and hummingbird hedgerow (BHH) is composed of herbaceous and woody host-plants for butterfly caterpillars and flowers that attract hummingbirds. BHH was edged, tilled, and smoothed in early-summer and divided into two plots by a footpath created with bark-mulched landscape-fabric. Northern BHH plot 1 was sheet-mulched (as above) and hand-planted with container stock and transplants exhibiting clumped and random distribution, sequence, and scale, according to mature heights and widths. BBH container stock and transplant list is presented in Table 1. Trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau), large-leaved Dutchman's pipe (Isotrema macrophyllum (Lam.) C.F. Reed), and trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens L.) vines were supported with metal garden trellises. All container stock and transplants were bark-mulched. After being hand-watered upon installation, all container stock and transplants received bi-weekly watering either by hand or rainfall. Southern BBH plot 2 was solarized (as above) and hand-seeded with 0.23 kg of Butterfly & Hummingbird Garden Mix (ERNMX-179; Ernst Seeds, Meadville PA). ERNMX-179 plant list is presented in Table 2. A locally foraged black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and staghorn sumac brush pile was constructed along the northern garden-edge to foster overwintering by adult angle-wing butterflies (Nymphalidae), such as the Mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758)), Eastern Comma (Polygonia comma (Harris, 1841)), and Question mark (Polygonia interrogations (Fabricius, 1798)). Two large and cavity-riddled stones were placed within BBH plot 2 to enhance habitat complexity and promote cavity-nesting pollinators.

Table 1. Butterfly and hummingbird hedgerow container stock and transplant list. Species are organized alphabetically and presented with authorities and common names.
• Aesculus parviflora Walter; Bottlebrush buckeye
• Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze; Anise hyssop
• Asclepias incarnata L.; Swamp milkweed
• Asclepias tuberosa L.; Butterfly milkweed
• Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br.; Yellow wild indigo
• Buddleja davidii Franch.; Buzz butterfly bush
• Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau; Trumpet creeper
• Caryopteris x clandonensis hort. ex Rehder [incana x mongholica] 'Longwood Blue'; Bluebeard
• Ceanothus americanus L.; New Jersey tea
• Cephalanthus occidentalis L.; Common buttonbush
• Clethra alnifolia L. 'Hummingbird'; Hummingbird summersweet
• Corylus americana Walter; American hazelnut
• Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench; Eastern purple coneflower
• Hyssopus officinalis L.; Hyssop
• Isotrema macrophyllum (Lam.) C.F. Reed; Large-leaved Dutchman's pipe
• Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.; Dense blazing star
• Lonicera sempervirens L.; Trumpet honeysuckle
• Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume; Northern spicebush
• Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.; Bigleaf lupine
• Monarda didyma L.; Scarlet beebalm
• Nepeta cataria L.; Catnip
• Salix bebbiana Sarg.; Bebb willow
• Silphium perfoliatum L.; Cup plant
• Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom; New York aster
• Verbena bonariensis L.; Purpletop vervain

Table 2. Butterfly & Hummingbird Garden Mix (ERNMX-179; Ernst Seeds, Meadville PA). List replicated from http://www.ernstseed.com/seed-mix/?category-id=58.
• 35% Sideoats Grama, 'Butte' (Bouteloua curtipendula, 'Butte')
• 10% Virginia Wildrye, PA Ecotype (Elymus virginicus, PA Ecotype)
• 6% Bachelor's Button Tall Mixed/Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus, Tall Mixed)
• 5% Rocket Larkspur (Delphinium ajacis)
• 5% Lanceleaf Coreopsis, Coastal Plain (Coreopsis lanceolata, Coastal Plain NC Ecotype)
• 5% Hairy Beardtongue (Penstemon hirsutus)
• 5% Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
• 5% Bigleaf Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus)
• 4% Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum)
• 2% Sweetwilliam (Dianthus barbatus)
• 2% Blackeyed Susan, Coastal Plain NC Ecotype (Rudbeckia hirta, Coastal Plain NC Ecotype)
• 2% Marsh (Dense) Blazing Star (Spiked Gayfeather) (Liatris spicata)
• 1% Showy Goldenrod, Southern WV Ecotype (Solidago speciosa, Southern WV Ecotype)
• 1% Rattlesnakemaster, OH Ecotype (Eryngium yuccifolium, OH Ecotype)
• 1% Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
• 1% Whorled Rosinweed (Silphium trifoliatum)
• 1% Spotted Beebalm, Coastal Plain SC Ecotype (Monarda punctata, Coastal Plain SC Ecotype)
• 1% Arrowleaf (Sagittate) Aster, PA Ecotype (Aster sagittifolius (A. urophyllus) (Symphyotrichum urophyllum), PA Ecotype)
• 1% New England Aster, PA Ecotype (Aster novae-angliae (Symphyotrichum n.), PA Ecotype)
• 1% Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa)
• 1% Eastern Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
• 1% Corn Poppy/Shirley Mix (Papaver rhoeas, Shirley Mix)
• 1% Appalachian Beardtongue, PA Ecotype (Penstemon laevigatus, PA Ecotype)
• 1% Oxeye Sunflower, PA Ecotype (Heliopsis helianthoides, PA Ecotype)
• 1% Plains Coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)
• 0.5% Hoary Mountainmint, MD Ecotype (Pycnanthemum incanum, MD Ecotype)
• 0.5% Slender Mountainmint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium)